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You might come across the above three pronouns quite frequently as well. As you can see, they are based on the simple pronouns qui, que and dont, to which the preceding pronoun ce is added. This happens when there is no specific noun to which it refers.

For example:

  1. Je ne comprends pas ce qui est dit.
  2. Elle n'a pas accepté ce que nous lui avions proposé.
  3. Si M. Clinton est coupable de ce dont on l'accuse, pourquoi a-t-il agi ainsi ?

This combination ce + relative pronoun could be literally translated as 'that which' but will generally be better translated using 'what'.

  1. I do not understand what is being said.
  2. She did not accept what we had offered to her.
  3. If Mr. Clinton is guilty of what he is being accused, why did he act like that?