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We have just seen in the previous section that linking words are essential in order to spot the articulations of the text. However, they are not the only markers that can be useful. Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns are also used to refer to other elements in the text and can cast some light on the author's message and intention.

'Ce' is the demonstrative adjective by default and takes various form dependig on the gender and number of the nouns it precedes:

'Ce' in front of a masculine noun starting with a consonnant;

'Cet' in front of a masculine noun starting with a vowel;

'Cette' in front of a feminine noun;

'Ces' in front of a plural noun.

The adjective will therefore inform you about the gender and number of the noun it refers to.

Ex: ce discours, cet auteur, cette intervention, ces œuvres

The demonstrative pronouns will replace a noun or a group of nouns, and again will take a different form depending whether it refers to masculine or feminine and singular or plural nouns.

Celui for masculine/singular nouns;

Celle for feminine/singular nouns ;

Ceux for masculine/plural nouns ;

Celles for feminine/plural nouns.

Exemple : J'aime toutes les fleurs mais celles que je préfère sont les roses.

The demonstrative pronouns will usuallytranslate as the one(s), these or those.

In addition, the suffixes -ci (here) or -là (there) can be added to the demonstrative pronouns or to the noun that follows a demonstrative adjective:

Ce discours-ci est plus clair que ce discours-là (this speech [here] is clearer than that discourse [there])

Si nous comparons les deux tableaux, nous remarquons que celui-là ne contient pas d'informations nouvelles alors que celui-ci en apporte un nombre considérable. (If we compare the two tables, we notice that that one does not contain any new information while this one brings an important number)

The use of 'this one' and 'that one' in English can also convey the same idea, alternatively 'the latter' and 'the former' can also be used on some context.


Translate the following sentences.

1. J'hésite entre ces deux candidats: celui-ci a beaucoup d'expérience mais celui-là possède de meilleurs diplômes.

2. Je n'aime aucune de ces deux propositions : celle-ci est trop chère et celle-là n'est pas réaliste.

3. Beaucoup de soldats sont morts dans les tranchées mais ceux-ci ont échappé aux bombes et aux balles.

4. Parmi toutes ces paires de chaussures, il a choisi celles-là

1. I'm hesitating between these two candidates: this one has a lot of experience but that one has better qualifications.

2. I do not like either of those propositions: this one is to expensive and that one is not realistic.

3. A lot of soldiers died in the trenches but these escaped the bombs and the bullets.

4. Amongst all these pairs of shoes, he chose those.

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