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Read the following texts adapted from before completing the reading comprehension and grammar tasks.




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Reading comprehension


Reading comprehension question 1

Leaving aside the academic and religious domains, until what period can we observe the presence of Latin alongside the vernacular language in France?

Until the 17th centuryVérifier votre réponse


Reading comprehension question 2

The paragraph [lines 17-20] is saying that (select 1 answer only):

Well done!Read again carefully...Votre réponse a été sauvegardée.
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Reading comprehension question 3

What happened in 1539 and 1549, and what do those events have in common?

In 1539, an ordinance was signed that established French as the language of the judiciary system while in 1549 another text also establishes French as a literary language.They both contribute to make French an official language.Vérifier votre réponse


Reading comprehension question 4

The Académie Française was born from an idea by Marc Fumaroli and established by Richelieu.

Correct. 'Selon les termes de Marc Fumaroli' means 'according to Marc Fumaroli', who is probably an historian.Careful: 'Selon les termes de Marc Fumaroli' means 'according to Marc Fumaroli', who is probably an historian.Votre réponse a été sauvegardée.
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Reading comprehension question 5

What contributed to the establishment of French as an international language?

- the power of the French monarchy

- the refinement of French culture

- the improvements brought to the language by the Académie and grammarians

- the influence of the protestant emigrants

All this lead to French being the language of the Aristocracy and of the élite in northern Europe and also the diplomatic language.

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Reading comprehension question 6

List the factors that have influenced spelling and the rules surrounding it.

- natural evolution

- intervention of the Académie and other specialists

- usage

- constraints of etymomology and pronunciation

- practice in schools and publishing companies

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Reading Comprehension question 7

What led to the changes mentionned in the last section (line 62-71) of the text and what are those changes?

It was the competition with English and its influence on French language that led the government to establish some commissions that would point out to the French terms that should be used insted of foreign words (sometimes even creating new words).Vérifier votre réponse


Reading comprehension question 8

Give a brief title (in English) that best describes the content of each major section of the text:

- Lines 1-15

- Lines 17-45

- Lines 47-60

- Lines 62- 71

These are only suggestions:

- Lines 1-15: A brief history of French language

- Lines 17-45: The growing infuence of French language

- Lines 47-60: About the accuracy of spelling

- Lines 62- 71: The fight against the anglo-saxon influence on French language

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Grammar tasks


Grammar task 1

For each le, la, les or l', indicate whether they are an article or a pronoun (if they are a pronoun, also indicate the noun they refer to):

a) 'les' (line 3)

b) 'l'' (line 17)

c) 'l'' (line 23)

d) 'le' (line 28)

e) 'la' (line 29)

f) 'la' (line 34)

g) 'la' (line 35)

h) 'le' (line 37)

i) 'l'' (line 39)

j) 'le' (line 40)

a) 'les' (line 3): pronoun (les formes orales et populaires du latin)

b) 'l'' (line 17): article

c) 'l'' (line 23): article

d) 'le' (line 28): pronoun (l'attachement résolu à... littéraire); this one of the rare cases where a pronoun can refer to something that comes after.

e) 'la' (line 29): article

f) 'la' (line 34): article

g) 'la' (line 35): pronoun (notre langue)

h) 'le' (line 37): article

i) 'l'' (line 39): article

j) 'le' (line 40): article

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Grammar task 2

For each que or qu', indicate whether it is a conjunction or a pronoun (if the latter, also indicate the noun it refers to):

a) Line 25

b) Line 33

c) Line 39

d) Line 62

e) Line 63

f) Line 69

a) Line 25: pronoun (le groupe)

b) Line 33: conjunction

c) Line 39:conjunction

d) Line 62:conjunction

e) Line 63:conjunction

f) Line 69: pronoun (les termes français)

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Grammar task 3

Relying on the text (and not the dictionary) to justify your answer, indicate the gender and number of the following nouns:

Example: 'Moyen Age' (line 4): it is masculine and singular as indicated by the preceding contraction 'Au' (à+le), since 'le' is the article used in front of masculine singular nouns ('aux' would have indicated a plural).

a) 'vocabulaire' (line 2)

b) 'pays' (line 7)

c) 'français' (line 17)

d) 'unité' (line 32)

e) 'orthographe' (line 48)

f) 'règles' (line 57)

a) 'vocabulaire' (line 2) : the possessive adjective 'son' indicate it is singular and masculin (as it is starting with a consonnant)

b) 'pays' (line 7) : the article 'un' indicates it is singular and masculine (the 's' at the end of pays is not a mark of the plural)

c) 'français' (line 17) : the preceding 'du' is a contraction of 'de+le', therefore indicating that français is singular and masculine

d) 'unité' (line 32) : 'forgée' refers to the unité and the 'ée' ending therefore indicates that it is singular and feminine

e) 'orthographe' (line 48) : 'transformée' refers to 'l'orthographe' and the 'ée' ending therefore indicates that it is singular and feminine

f) 'règles' (line 57) : here again you need to look at a past participle that describes the noun to find it's gender and number; the ending of 'enseignées' tells us that 'règles' is feminine and plural.

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Grammar task 4

What are the infinitive forms of the following conjugated verbs:

a) 'peut' (line 6)

b) 'doit' (line 24)

c) 'voit' (line 28)

d) 'sera' (line 34)

e) 'font' (line 39)

f) 'étaient' (line 43)

All these verbs are very common ones so you should be able to recognise them straight away. If you don't, you need to memorise them.

a) 'peut' (line 6): pouvoir

b) 'doit' (line 24): devoir

c) 'voit' (line 28): voir

d) 'sera' (line 34): être

e) 'font' (line 39): faire

f) 'étaient' (line 43): être

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Grammar task 5

For each of the following pronouns, indicate which noun they refer to:

a) 'qui' (line 4)

b) 'celle' (line 8)

c) 'celles' (line 52)

a) 'qui' (line 4): dialectes

b) 'celle' (line 8): lalangue

c) 'celles' (line 52): lespratiques

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